Resolution is the internal property of the system and it is given by all
hardware components evaluating the result. For example, a temperature sensor (microwire) can have a sensitivity of
0.1 °C on a certain scale, but hardware components provide the smallest
detectable step of 1 °C, therefore sensor responses below 1 °C changes will
not be detected.
A signal from the sensor is usually transformed into an electrical response.
This needs to be digitised (usually by an A-D converter), thus the resolution is
given by the number of possible steps (recalculated in bits), which can be
distinguished by the AD converter . The following table describes the
smallest detectable step in the case of a 4-bit device in a different range
mode. The 4-bit device provides only 24 = 16 possible steps, which can be
detected through the whole range.
In other words, resolution represents the ratio between the maximum possible
measured value and the smallest possible change.
NOTE: Half value of the device's resolution is called uncertainty. For
example, resolution of a voltmeter is 1 mV, then the uncertainty of the
voltmeter is ±0.5 mV.